Bei einer Value Bet haben wir es also mit einer wertvollen Wette zu tun, die sich sehr rentabel gestaltet und sich deshalb lohnt. Es handelt sich, wenn man denn so. Unser Valuebet Tool filtert Quoten für alle Wettarten. Valuebets sind Wetten, die vom durchschnittlichen Wert aller angebotenen Wettquoten auf einen Ausgang so. Valuebets oder Valuewetten. 7 Tipps für größere Gewinnchancen. Mehr als der Wettanbieter wissen und das als Vorteil für die eigenen Sportwetten nutzen.
Strategien zum erfolgreichen Tippen von Value-BetsDer Schlüssel zu erfolgreichem Wetten ist es, Value-Situationen zu finden. Eine Value-Situation haben wir dann, wenn die angebotene Quote eines Buchmachers. Eine Value Bet (engl. für „Wette mit Wert“) ist eine Wette, die in den Augen des Tippers einen Wert besitzt und daher profitabel angespielt. Unser Valuebet Tool filtert Quoten für alle Wettarten. Valuebets sind Wetten, die vom durchschnittlichen Wert aller angebotenen Wettquoten auf einen Ausgang so.
Value Wetten Primaire navigatie VideoValue Bet - единственный способ стабильно зарабатывать на ставках Ihnen sind die Berechnungen bei der Value Bet Bubbleshooter Game zu viel. Setzen Sie also die Ihrer Meinung nach angemessene Wahrscheinlichkeit mit der vom Buchmacher angenommenen in Relation. Wie das genau funktioniert, wird in den nächsten Abschnitten ausführlich erklärt. Zudem solltet Ihr Euch intensiv mit Wahrscheinlichkeiten auseinandersetzen und ggfs. Perhaps one of the best features of a value bets system in Canada is that is can be applied to almost any type of betting. Whether you prefer betting before an event starts or you favour live or in-play betting, you can employ value bet betting techniques in Canada.. Similarly, value bet strategies that work in Canada can be used to gamble on a number of events and sports, including. Value bet wetten. Virtual sports betting market, Matched betting does it work, Value bet wetten, Bet on Champions League draw, Swansea West Bromwich bets, Granada Osasuna predictions, EPL betting tips wettpoint, Zenit CSKA Moscow preview, Advice on lay betting, Belmont stakes betting odds Recommended soccer bets. In the long run betting on values is the only successfull strategy to beat the bookmakers. BetCatcher is a value bet finder. Our betting philosophy is that a bet is a value bet if the odds are higher than the odds for the same bet at the betting exchanges. BetCatcher scans up to fifty online sportsbooks in real-time in order to provide you with. Value Wetten einfach erklärt. Der ultimative Weg zum langfristigen Gewinn. Sie sind auf der Suche nach einer gewinnbringenden Sportwettenstrategie? Berechnung von Value Wetten. Wie lässt sich berechnen, ob eine Wette gut ist? Bei Sportwetten geht es im Grunde nicht um den Gewinn mit einzelnen Tipps. Der Schlüssel zu erfolgreichem Wetten ist es, Value-Situationen zu finden. Eine Value-Situation haben wir dann, wenn die angebotene Quote eines Buchmachers. Unser Valuebet Tool filtert Quoten für alle Wettarten. Valuebets sind Wetten, die vom durchschnittlichen Wert aller angebotenen Wettquoten auf einen Ausgang so. Value Bets Value bets help you find interesting bets with mathematically calculated value. We compare the odds at a bookmaker with the total average odds of the same outcome. Want more value bets?. Get the best deals on Original Hummel Prints when you shop the largest online selection at daytonatriplethreat.com Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices. Value-Wetten treten auf, wenn ein Buchmacher Quoten setzt, die Ihrer Meinung nach massiv unterbewertet sind. Wenn Sie wissen, dass ein Pferd sehr wahrscheinlich ein Rennen gewinnt, der Buchmacher jedoch die Gewinnchancen eines Außenstehenden angibt, ist dies ein Beispiel für eine Value-Wette, und Sie werden wissen, dass Sie dies so schnell wie möglich nutzen können. Ob jemand Value Wetten dauerhaft findet und jene dann auch spielt, erkennt man besonders gut daran, wenn auf lange Sicht ein Gewinn eingefahren wird. Gerade das sollte aber auch das Ziel des Sportwettens sein, denn ein kurzfristiger Gewinn bringt uns nichts, wenn er kurze Zeit später schon wieder verspielt ist. Value Bet Strategy is very crucial to learn for a punter if they wish to make huge winnings in the betting game. Though it is not a guaranteed way to win, it does turn the tides in your favour when you know how to make the right moves and choices.
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Similarly, value bet strategies that work in Canada can be used to gamble on a number of events and sports, including horseracing, football, tennis, ice hockey, cricket, greyhound racing and horseracing.
So be sure to use a good valuebet betting strategy. Value betting techniques in Canada are all about finding an edge over other bettors or the bookmaker.
When you can find odds which put you ahead of the rest, you may have located value bet strategies that work in Canada.
A good value bets explanation is Canada is the classic example of a football or soccer match. If Team A have performed well all season and won their last five matches, they should have a good chance of winning against Team B, who have lost eight consecutive matches and have their top two players out due to injury.
Although people regularly bet on tennis, Golf , Cricket and Greyhound Racing , football is one of the most popular sports to gamble on.
With numerous leagues around the world, you can bet on individual matches, tournament winners, top goalscorers and even the number of goals per match.
Not quite. By adding a betting margin and setting odds at the right price, bookmakers can ensure that they have an edge of gamblers. A good valuebet betting strategy aims to combat this.
When it comes to sports, however, there are no fixed outcomes and this is why you need a valuebet betting strategy.
With so many variables affecting the outcome of a sports match, game or tournament, bookmakers find it harder to keep their advantage, therefore giving you the chance use to successful football value bet strategies in Canada.
Ignoring the odds that are being offered, examine the event in detail and evaluate the probability of each potential outcome. How likely is Team A to win, for example?
What chance to Team B have of lifting the trophy? Once you have calculated your own probabilities, you can compare these with the odds available.
Instead, you can use maths-based formula to determine the probability of one outcome occurring versus another in your valuebet betting strategy.
This helps you to move away from emotionally-motivated betting and gives you an independent, structured betting strategy to apply. The Poisson distribution method is often used to calculate the probability of a certain amount of goals being scored in a soccer match, so you could use this when employing football value bet strategies in Canada.
Alternatively, the Poisson-inverse Gaussian or the negative binomial distribution method can also be used to calculate probability in a valuebet betting strategy.
There are many helpful online resources you can use to calculate probabilities with your chosen method, and this can make it far easier to identify value bets.
Getting value betting explained in Canada is easier than you think. Generally, you can determine whether a bet has value using the following formula:.
A good value bets explanation in Canada is the example of a coin toss using decimal odds. If a bookmaker were to offer you odds of 2.
Have a look at this example for another valuebet betting strategy. In most cases, you can use the above formula to determine whether a bet has value in your valuebet betting strategy.
Any bet which, when the formula is applied, gives a total of less than 0 should be a value bet. Of course, a total of 0. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies.
It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Value Wetten: Wahrscheinlichkeiten berechnen Jeder Wettanbieter erstellt seine Quoten nach Einbeziehung jeglicher zu bekommender Informationen und Umstände, die Einfluss auf die Gestaltung der Wettquote haben.
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Within 14 days of the submission of a proposal to the Council, the President of the Council shall determine whether there would be a formal objection to the adoption of the proposal.
If the President determines that there would be such an objection, the President shall establish and convene, within three days following such determination, a conciliation committee consisting of not more than nine members of the Council, with the President as chairman, for the purpose of reconciling the differences and producing a proposal which can be adopted by consensus.
The committee shall work expeditiously and report to the Council within 14 days following its establishment. If the committee is unable to recommend a proposal which can be adopted by consensus, it shall set out in its report the grounds on which the proposal is being opposed.
Such a representative shall be entitled to participate in the deliberations but not to vote. The Council shall have the power to establish, in conformity with this Convention and the general policies established by the Assembly, the specific policies to be pursued by the Authority on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority.
In the composition of subsidiary organs, emphasis shall be placed on the need for members qualified and competent in relevant technical matters dealt with by those organs provided that due account shall be taken of the principle of equitable geographical distribution and of special interests;.
The Council shall act upon each plan of work within 60 days of its submission by the Legal and Technical Commission at a session of the Council in accordance with the following procedures:.
If there is an objection, the conciliation procedure set forth in article , paragraph 8 e , shall apply. If, at the end of the conciliation procedure, the objection is still maintained, the plan of work shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council unless the Council disapproves it by consensus among its members excluding any State or States making the application or sponsoring the applicant;.
These rules, regulations and procedures shall relate to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area and the financial management and internal administration of the Authority.
Priority shall be given to the adoption of rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of polymetallic nodules.
Rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of any resource other than polymetallic nodules shall be adopted within three years from the date of a request to the Authority by any of its members to adopt such rules, regulations and procedures in respect of such resource.
All rules, regulations and procedures shall remain in effect on a provisional basis until approved by the Assembly or until amended by the Council in the light of any views expressed by the Assembly;.
However, if necessary, the Council may decide to increase the size of either Commission having due regard to economy and efficiency.
States Parties shall nominate candidates of the highest standards of competence and integrity with qualifications in relevant fields so as to ensure the effective exercise of the functions of the Commissions.
No person shall be elected to serve on more than one Commission. They shall be eligible for re-election for a further term. Subject to their responsibilities to the Commissions upon which they serve, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, article 14, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their duties for the Authority.
Recommendations to the Council shall, where necessary, be accompanied by a summary on the divergencies of opinion in the Commission.
The Council shall endeavour to ensure that the membership of the Commission reflects all appropriate qualifications.
The Commission shall include at least two members from developing States whose exports of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area have a substantial bearing upon their economies.
The Commission shall make the recommendations to the Council that are necessary for the application of the system or other measures adopted by the Assembly in specific cases.
The Commission shall base its recommendations solely on the grounds stated in Annex III and shall report fully thereon to the Council;.
Such recommendations shall be taken up by the Council on a priority basis;. Subject to this consideration, due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
The terms and conditions on which they shall be appointed, remunerated and dismissed shall be in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.
They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Authority. Each State Party undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.
Any violation of responsibilities by a staff member shall be submitted to the appropriate administrative tribunal as provided in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.
Subject to their responsibilities to the Authority, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, article 14, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their employment with the Authority.
The Party affected shall have the right to take part in the proceedings. If the tribunal so recommends, the Secretary-General shall dismiss the staff member concerned.
Procedures shall be established for obtaining the views of such organizations in appropriate cases. The Enterprise shall act in accordance with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, as well as the general policies established by the Assembly, and shall be subject to the directives and control of.
The Secretary-General shall draft the proposed annual budget of the Authority and submit it to the Council. The Council shall consider the proposed annual budget and submit it to the Assembly, together with any recommendations thereon.
The Assembly shall consider and approve the proposed annual budget in accordance with article , paragraph 2 h. Except for the assessed contributions referred to in article , subparagraph a , the funds which remain after payment of administrative expenses may, inter alia :.
The records, books and accounts of the Authority, including its annual financial statements, shall be audited annually by an independent auditor appointed by the Assembly.
The Authority shall have international legal personality and such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.
To enable the Authority to exercise its functions, it shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party the privileges and immunities set forth in this subsection.
The privileges and immunities relating to the Enterprise shall be those set forth in Annex IV, article The Authority, its property and assets, shall enjoy immunity from legal process except to the extent that the Authority expressly waives this immunity in a particular case.
The property and assets of the Authority, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from search, requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of seizure by executive or legislative action.
The property and assets of the Authority shall be exempt from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria of any nature. Representatives of States Parties attending meetings of the Assembly, the Council or organs of the Assembly or the Council, and the Secretary-General and staff of the Authority, shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party:.
The Authority shall not claim exemption from taxes which are no more than charges for services rendered. Goods imported or purchased under an exemption provided for in this article shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of in the territory of the State Party which granted the exemption, except under conditions agreed with that State Party.
A State Party which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Authority shall have no vote if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years.
The Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the member.
The establishment of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber and the manner in which it shall exercise its jurisdiction shall be governed by the provisions of this section, of Part XV and of Annex VI.
The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall have jurisdiction under this Part and the Annexes relating thereto in disputes with respect to activities in the Area falling within the following categories:.
A commercial arbitral tribunal to which the dispute is submitted shall have no jurisdiction to decide any question of interpretation of this Convention.
When the dispute also involves a question of the interpretation of Part XI and the Annexes relating thereto, with respect to activities in the Area, that question shall be referred to the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber for a ruling.
The arbitral tribunal shall then proceed to render its award in conformity with the ruling of the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber.
The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall have no jurisdiction with regard to the exercise by the Authority of its discretionary powers in accordance with this Part; in no case shall it substitute its discretion for that of the Authority.
Without prejudice to article , in exercising its jurisdiction pursuant to article , the Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall not pronounce itself on the question of whether any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority are in conformity with this Convention, nor declare invalid any such rules, regulations and procedures.
Its jurisdiction in this regard shall be confined to deciding claims that the application of any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in individual cases would be in conflict with the contractual obligations of the parties to the dispute or their obligations under this Convention, claims concerning excess of jurisdiction or misuse of power, and to claims for damages to be paid or other remedy to be given to the party concerned for the failure of the other party to comply with its contractual obligations or its obligations under this Convention.
Failing such appearance, the respondent State may arrange to be represented by a juridical person of its nationality.
The Sea-Bed Disputes Chamber shall give advisory opinions at the request of the Assembly or the Council on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.
Such opinions shall be given as a matter of urgency. States have the sovereign right to exploit their natural resources pursuant to their environmental policies and in accordance with their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment.
These measures shall include, inter alia , those designed to minimize to the fullest possible extent:. In taking measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment, States shall act so as not to transfer, directly or indirectly, damage or hazards from one area to another or transform one type of pollution into another.
States shall co-operate on a global basis and, as appropriate, on a regional basis, directly or through competent international organizations, in formulating and elaborating international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures consistent with this Convention, for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, taking into account characteristic regional features.
When a State becomes aware of cases in which the marine environment is in imminent danger of being damaged or has been damaged by pollution, it shall immediately notify other States it deems likely to be affected by such damage, as well as the competent international organizations.
In the cases referred to in article , States in the area affected, in accordance with their capabilities, and the competent international organizations shall co-operate, to the extent possible, in eliminating the effects of pollution and preventing or minimizing the damage.
To this end, States shall jointly develop and promote contingency plans for responding to pollution incidents in the marine environment.
States shall co-operate, directly or through competent international organizations, for the purpose of promoting studies, undertaking programmes of scientific research and encouraging the exchange of information and data acquired about pollution of the marine environment.
They shall endeavour to participate actively in regional and global programmes to acquire knowledge for the assessment of the nature and extent of pollution, exposure to it, and its pathways, risks and remedies.
In the light of the information and data acquired pursuant to article , States shall co-operate, directly or through competent international organizations, in establishing appropriate scientific criteria for the formulation and elaboration of rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment.
Such assistance shall include, inter alia :. Developing States shall, for the purposes of prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment or minimization of its effects, be granted preference by international organizations in:.
States shall publish reports of the results obtained pursuant to article or provide such reports at appropriate intervals to the competent international organizations, which should make them available to all States.
When States have reasonable grounds for believing that planned activities under their jurisdiction or control may cause substantial pollution of or significant and harmful changes to the marine environment, they shall, as far as practicable, assess the potential effects of such activities on the marine environment and shall communicate reports of the results of such assessments in the manner provided in article Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.
Such rules, regulations and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary,. The requirements of such laws and regulations shall be no less effective than the international rules, regulations and procedures referred to in paragraph 1.
Such rules and standards shall, in the same manner, be re-examined from time to time as necessary. Such laws and regulations shall at least have the same effect as that of generally accepted international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.
Whenever such requirements are established in identical form by two or more coastal States in an endeavour to harmonize policy, the communication shall indicate which States are participating in such co-operative arrangements.
Every State shall require the master of a vessel flying its flag or of its registry, when navigating within the territorial sea of a State participating in such co-operative arrangements, to furnish, upon the request of that State, information as to whether it is proceeding to a State of the same region participating in such co-operative arrangements and, if so, to indicate whether it complies with the port entry requirements of that State.
This article is without prejudice to the continued exercise by a vessel of its right of innocent passage or to the application of article 25, paragraph 2.
Such laws and regulations shall, in accordance with Part II, section 3, not hamper innocent passage of foreign vessels.
Within 12 months after receiving such a communication, the organization shall determine whether the conditions in that area correspond to the requirements set out above.
If the organization so determines, the coastal States may, for that area, adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels implementing such international rules and standards or navigational practices as are made applicable, through the organization, for special areas.
These laws and regulations shall not become applicable to foreign vessels until 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization.
Such additional laws and regulations may relate to discharges or navigational practices but shall not require foreign vessels to observe design, construction, manning or equipment standards other than generally accepted international rules and standards; they shall become applicable to foreign vessels 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization, provided that the organization agrees within 12 months after the submission of the communication.
States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with article and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources.
States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with article and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment arising from or in connection with sea-bed activities subject to their jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and structures under their jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and Enforcement of international rules, regulations and procedures established in accordance with Part XI to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area shall be governed by that Part.
Flag States shall provide for the effective enforcement of such rules, standards, laws and regulations, irrespective of where a violation occurs.
States shall ensure that vessels flying their flag are periodically inspected in order to verify that such certificates are in conformity with the actual condition of the vessels.
These certificates shall be accepted by other States as evidence of the condition of the vessels and shall be regarded as having the same force as certificates issued by them, unless there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the vessel does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates.
States shall endeavour to meet appropriate requests of flag States. If satisfied that sufficient evidence is available to enable proceedings to be brought in respect of the alleged violation, flag States shall without delay institute such proceedings in accordance with their laws.
Such information shall be available to all States. It shall likewise, as far as practicable, comply with requests from the flag State for investigation of such a violation, irrespective of where the violation occurred.
Any proceedings instituted by the port State on the basis of such an investigation may, subject to section 7, be suspended at the request of the coastal State when the violation has occurred within its internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone.
The evidence and records of the case, together with any bond or other financial security posted with the authorities of the port State, shall in that event be transmitted to the coastal State.
Such transmittal shall preclude the continuation of proceedings in the port State. Subject to section 7, States which, upon request or on their own initiative, have ascertained that a vessel within one of their ports or at one of their off-shore terminals is in violation of applicable international rules and standards relating to seaworthiness of vessels and thereby threatens damage to the marine environment shall, as far as practicable, take administrative measures to prevent the vessel from sailing.
Such States may permit the vessel to proceed only to the nearest appropriate repair yard and, upon removal of the causes of the violation, shall permit the vessel to continue immediately.
States shall enforce, within the air space under their sovereignty or with regard to vessels flying their flag or vessels or aircraft of their registry, their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with article , paragraph 1, and with other provisions of this Convention and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through the atmosphere, in conformity with all relevant international rules and standards concerning the safety of air navigation.
In proceedings instituted pursuant to this Part, States shall take measures to facilitate the hearing of witnesses and the admission of evidence submitted by authorities of another State, or by the competent international organization, and shall facilitate the attendance at such proceedings of official representatives of the competent international organization, the flag State and any State affected by pollution arising out of any violation.
The official representatives attending such proceedings shall have such rights and duties as may be provided under national laws and regulations or international law.
The powers of enforcement against foreign vessels under this Part may only be exercised by officials or by warships, military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.
In the exercise under this Convention of their powers of enforcement against foreign vessels, States shall not endanger the safety of navigation or otherwise create any hazard to a vessel, or bring it to an unsafe port or anchorage, or expose the marine environment to an unreasonable risk.
Any physical inspection of a foreign vessel shall be limited to an examination of such certificates, records or other documents as the vessel is required to carry by generally accepted international rules and standards or of any similar documents which it is carrying; further physical inspection of the vessel may be undertaken only after such an examination and only when:.
Where release has been refused or made conditional, the flag State of the vessel must be promptly notified, and may seek release of the vessel in accordance with Part XV.
In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Part, States shall not discriminate in form or in fact against vessels of any other State.
The flag State shall in due course make available to the State previously instituting proceedings a full dossier of the case and the records of the proceedings, whenever the flag State has requested the suspension of proceedings in accordance with this article.
When proceedings instituted by the flag State have been brought to a conclusion, the suspended proceedings shall be terminated.
Upon payment of costs incurred in respect of such proceedings, any bond posted or other financial security provided in connection with the suspended proceedings shall be released by the coastal State.
Nothing in this Convention affects the institution of civil proceedings in respect of any claim for loss or damage resulting from pollution of the marine environment.
States shall promptly notify the flag State and any other State concerned of any measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels, and shall submit to the flag State all official reports concerning such measures.
However, with respect to violations committed in the territorial sea, the foregoing obligations of the coastal State apply only to such measures as are taken in proceedings.
The diplomatic agents or consular officers and where possible the maritime authority of the flag State, shall be immediately informed of any such measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels.
States shall be liable for damage or loss attributable to them arising from measures taken pursuant to section 6 when such measures are unlawful or exceed those reasonably required in the light of available information.
States shall provide for recourse in their courts for actions in respect of such damage or loss. Nothing in sections 5, 6 and 7 affects the legal regime of straits used for international navigation.
However, if a foreign ship other than those referred to in section 10 has committed a violation of the laws and regulations referred to in article 42, paragraph l a and b , causing or threatening major damage to the marine environment of the straits, the States bordering the straits may take appropriate enforcement measures and if so shall respect mutatis mutandis the provisions of this section.
Coastal States have the right to adopt and enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine environment could cause major harm to or irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance.
Such laws and regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the protection and preservation of the marine environment based on the best available scientific evidence.
They shall be liable in accordance with international law. The provisions of this Convention regarding the protection and preservation of the marine environment do not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary, other vessels or aircraft owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service.
However, each State shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing operations or operational capabilities of such vessels or aircraft owned or operated by it, that such vessels or aircraft act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonable and practicable, with this Convention.
All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right to conduct marine scientific research subject to the rights and duties of other States as provided for in this Convention.
States and competent international organizations shall promote and facilitate the development and conduct of marine scientific research in accordance with this Convention.
Marine scientific research activities shall not constitute the legal basis for any claim to any part of the marine environment or its resources.
States and competent international organizations shall co-operate, through the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements, to create favourable conditions for the conduct of marine scientific research in the marine environment and to integrate the efforts of scientists in studying the essence of phenomena and processes occurring in the marine environment and the interrelations between them.
Coastal States, in the exercise of their sovereignty, have the exclusive right to regulate, authorize and conduct marine scientific research in their territorial sea.
Marine scientific research therein shall be conducted only with the express consent of and under the conditions set forth by the coastal State.
To this end, coastal States shall establish rules and procedures ensuring that such consent will not be delayed or denied unreasonably.
Coastal States shall give reasonable notice of the designation of such areas, as well as any modifications thereto, but shall not be obliged to give details of the operations therein.
A coastal State which is a member of or has a bilateral agreement with an international organization, and in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf that organization wants to carry out a marine scientific research project, directly or under its auspices, shall be deemed to have authorized the project to be carried out in conformity with the agreed specifications if that State approved the detailed project when the decision was made by the organization for the undertaking of the project, or is willing to participate in it, and has not expressed any objection within four months of notification of the project by the organization to the coastal State.
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